Kazakhstan, the 9th largest country in the world by land area, is a Turkic states in Central Asia.

For most of its history, the territory of modern-day Kazakhstan has been inhabited by nomadic tribes. By the 16th century, the Kazakhs emerged as a distinct group, divided into three Jüz. The Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, and by the mid-19th century all of Kazakhstan was part of the Russian Empire.

Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, and subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganized several times before becoming the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic in 1936, a part of the USSR. Kazakhstan declared itself an independent country on December 16, 1991, the last Soviet republic to do so.

The capital was moved in 1998 from Almaty, Kazakhstan's largest city, to Astana.

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